As far as I know there are in CRAN four R packages implementing the computations for the position of the sun and times of sunrise and sunset: ‘photobiology’, ‘fishmethods’, ‘solartime’ and ‘suncalc’.

The functions `sun_angles()`

and `day_night()`

from package ‘photobiology’ use Meeus equations as used by NOAA Solar Calculator https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/ which could be more precise than those in NOAA’s Excel worksheet which implement a simplified version of the Meeus equations especially for far into the past or far into the future calculations. The approximations based on Meuus equations are very good for years between 1800 and 2100 and results should still be sufficiently accurate for the range from -1000 to 3000 as long as the computation of Julian dates is correct. The Excel implementation is only valid for dates between 1901 and 2099 because of how Julian dates are computed in Excel.

Function `astrocalc4r()`

from package ‘fishmethods’ also implements Meeus equations (the authors work at NOAA). Function `computeSunPosition()`

from package ‘solartime’ uses unspecified equations and function `getSunlightPosition()`

is an R interface to the ‘suncalc.js’ library, part of the ‘SunCalc.net’ project <http://suncalc.net>.

Function `computeSunPosition()`

from package ‘solartime’ uses unspecified equations and function `getSunlightPosition()`

is an R interface to the ‘suncalc.js’ library, part of the ‘SunCalc.net’ project <http://suncalc.net>.

UPDATED on 2019-04-24

I have noticed significant differences in the values returned by equivalent functions from different packages. Up to now the tests on the functions of my own package ‘photobiology’ have revealed only very small mismatches to the NOAA Solar Calculator. These small errors, noticeable for dates far from the present, were due to the use of base R’s `julian()`

function, which is not designed to be precise enough for astronomical calculations. The code now in the repository at Bitbucket has been revised to use Meuus’ algorithm for the calculation of Julian days removing this source of small discrepancies.

In contrast, while testing ‘photobiology’ against other packages, I seem to have found a bug in function `astrocalc4r()`

from R package ‘fishmethods’.

A minimal example follows:

By only changing the hour passed as argument different times for sunrise, sunset and daylength are returned even though the day is the same. The differences are larger at high than at low latitudes. The maximum difference for the example above is 1/4 h for daylength. Comparison against the NOAA Solar Calculator shows even larger differences.

(The bug has been reported to the maintainer of package ‘fishmethods’.)